Techniques which should be avoided

Any physical intervention and particularly forceful restraint can lead to medical complications, sudden death or permanent disability, especially where situational and individual risk factors are present.



  • Strikes and kicks - Any strike must be recognised as a high-risk technique; whether it is a punch, kick, use of the knee, head or elbow, damage is likely to be sustained and can result in falls with devastating consequences.

  • Interventions involving the neck, spine or vital organs.

  • Restraint on the ground ( face up and face down ), or other positions that impair breathing or circulation and increase risk of sudden death, for example through positional asphyxia.

  • An individual failing or being forced to ground.

Although some of these techniques can be lawful in certain circumstances, they will require high levels of justification and training. The longer the duration of the restraint the greater the risk.